Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex injury with a broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities. The impact on a person and his or her family can be devastating. The two main causes for TBI are falls and vehicle accidents; TBI can also be caused by violence. This type of injury occurs when the brain is driven into the side of the skull by a sudden blow, by a shaking force, or “whiplash.” Babies and small children can suffer such injuries from being shaken, known as “shaken baby syndrome.” The impact can cause bruising and swelling of the brain, and sometimes tear blood vessels in the brain. Sometimes symptoms of TBI won’t become apparent until days or even weeks after the initial injury. Brain trauma can be caused by a direct impact or by acceleration alone. TBI can cause serious, life-threatening events and can result in permanent, irreversible damage to the brain. Some insurance companies won’t pay for treatment because it is very expensive and there is no guarantee that the patient will recover.